Final Project: Brainstorming

This past weekend I went over to my parents’ house to have a brainstorming session concerning the final project with the Arduino board. We began by discussing what may possibly interest me and what may also be feasible with regard to the time constraints. After relating the story about the light system for the bike, the conversation turned to what could possibly be of use to me. I stopped to think of what annoys me most in my life and my mind quickly leapt to the current promotion going on at my work. I am a bartender at Chili’s Grille & Bar and we are currently halfway through another one of our many margarita contests. These contests necessitate my making a great deal of margaritas during my shifts. For the most part these are not that time consuming, however, the margaritas made with fresh lime juice necessitate vigorous shaking that varies from 5 shakes to 32 shakes. Now, simply making one of these is not a difficult ordeal, but when a server rings in five of them during the rush it can be very stressful and physically taxing to accomplish.

During these contests I always daydream of having a device that akin to a blender that could shake these drinks for me, while I focused on another task. I decided that I would investigate the possibility of constructing and programming such a device with the use of the Arduino board. After examining the Arduino store it appears to me that this is a distinct possibility. Some of the components that I believe may be of use to me during the construction are listed below.

Box for Arduino

Arduino Motor Shield Rev3

Servo Module (Possibly 2-3)

I just became aware that to but components directly from the Arduino store may be cost prohibitive as the shipping costs are exorbitant. After browsing through the page where they list their licensed distributors, it appears that Adafruit Industries may have the most comprehensive set of components from which I could choose.

After looking at the sites and thinking about shipping costs it dawned on me that I should check out Amazon.com, as I have a Prime membership with them and their products tend to be less expensive in general.

Amazon.com (possible components to buy)

Wall Adapter Power Supply – 9VDC 650mA

 

 

Lab 11: OpAmps

The goal of this lab is to investigate the uses of OpAmps.

 

Check Power Supply:

HeathKit

+ 12 V Power Supply : 11.97 V

-12 V Power Supply: 18.60 V

5 V (TOP) Power Supply: 5.011 V

5 V (BOTTOM) Power Supply: 5.011 V

DO NOT USE HeathKit due the malfunctioning -12 V Power Supply

Bread Board w/ Power Supply:

+ 12 V Power Supply : 11.77 V

-12 V Power Supply: 12.04V

5 V  Power Supply: 5..158V

Applets

Looked at voltage follower on hyperphysics and the voltage follower on falstad applet.

Voltage Follower

OpAmp Power Supply Connections

I used the diodes in the above diagram where others did not. It does not make a difference in the oscilloscope readings but rather is a safety measure to protect the opamp.

Voltage Follower

 

Voltage Follower

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I was able to get identical waveforms.

Oscilloscope Reading Voltage Follower

Zoomed in and found breakdown of waveform around 7500 H

 

Oscilloscope Reading at 6844 Hz

 

 

 

Oscilloscope Reading at 7985 Hz

 

Oscilloscope Reading at 12145 Hz

Summing Amplifier

Summing Amplifier

Summing Amplifier

 

measure input from function generator (channel 1)

measure output (channel 2) (inverts and adds)

Oscilloscope Reading from Summing Amplifier

 

Lab 10: NMOS/FET & Digital Logic

Materials:

Heathkit

2N7000 Transistor

270Ω Resistor

 

 

 

 

Wire Jumper Kit

 

 

 

 

 

 

LED

 

 

 

 

 

Procedure:

The goal of this lab is to construct various types of logic gates with 2N7000 NMOS transistors. I began as usual by forking the repository from Dr. Koch at 2012-Physics-308L-Lab-10-NMOS. Brandon had some difficulties with getting his to fork and I had an issue with cloning the repository to the desktop. After consulting with Dr. Koch, he checked the GitHub twitter feed and found that many people were having difficulties with GitHub at the moment. When I needed to compare my setup to Dr. Koch’s I instead just looked at the photos directly on GitHub.

Below is a schematic of the 2N7000 NMOS transistor found here.

1.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Not

For this section I constructed a NOT gate and then measured the drain source current and the voltage after the resistor. In the setup the green wire is connected to the gate of the transistor.

LED ON:

Drain Source Current: 0 mA (originally measured 12 mA b/c was picking up current going to LED)

Voltage after resistor: 4.953 V (2.044 V w/ LED wired in)

NOT Gate - Source: False / Output: True

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LED OFF:

22 mA

.052 V

NOT Gate - Source: True / Output: False

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The above voltage readings make sense because when the source is is true, then the output will be false. The NOT gate makes the output the opposite of the input.

2. NOT NOT

In this part of the lab we constructed a NOT NOT gate from two 2N7000 transistors, two 270 Ω resistors, and two LED.

Right LED ON/ Left LED OFF:

Original Resistor: 2.044 V (Due to LED draining)

New Resistor: .091 V

NOT NOT GATE- Source: False / Output: False

Right LED OFF/ Left LED ON:

Original Resistor: .082 V

New Resistor: 2.038 V

NOT NOT GATE- Source: True / Output: True

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Through the use of two transistors it is possible to construct a NOT NOT gate. This is because the first transistor makes the output the opposite of the input. The second transistor makes its output the opposite of its input (the output of the first transistor. This results in the final output being the same as the initial input.

3. NAND

The final part of the lab instructed us to construct an NMOS NAND gate based on the following schematic found on wikipedia.

 

Below is a truth table for a NAND gate that can be found here.

 

In the setup yellow and green refer to the the wires leaded to the gates of each 2N7000 NMOS transistor.

Yellow 5 V/Green Ground:

Current: 0 A

Voltage: 5.006 V

NAND Gate- Green Source: False, Yellow Source: True / Output: True

Yellow Ground/Green Ground:

Current: 0 A

Voltage: 5.006 V

NAND Gate- Green Source: False, Yellow Source: False / Output: True

Yellow Ground/Green 5 V:

Current: 0 A

Voltage: 5.006 V

NAND Gate- Green Source: True, Yellow Source: False / Output: True

Yellow 5 V/ Green 5 V:

Current: 23 mA

Voltage: .145 before 1st transistor (.093 after first transistor)

NAND Gate- Green Source: True, Yellow Source: True / Output: False


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The use of many of NAND gates in sequence would not be ideal because each successive transistor draws more and more current. This would be impractical in a real world setting.

 

Resources:

Dr. Koch

Wikipedia articles on NAND gates.

Opamp-electronics.com

dz863.com